Skip to main content

Full text of "Air Pollution Control Program Annual Report 2001"

See other formats


Divisions and Programs 



Home Page Site Directory 

Help 




Missouri Department of 

Natural Resources 



Division of Environmental Quality 












Forms and Permits Publications News and Public Notices State Parks 

Halpnrlar 


O site 9 state 









Air Pollution Control 
Program 

Air Quality Data System 



Air Program Advisory 
Forum 



Commissions and Boards 



Gateway Vehicle 
Inspection Program 



Inspection and 
Maintenance (l/M) 



Permits 



Publications and Reports 



Report an Environmental 
Problem 



Laws and Regulations 



State Plans 



2001 Annual Report 

The Air Pollution Control Program produces an annual report to provide Missouri residents 
information about the status of air quality in the state. The publication is made available here in 
electronic format. The publication is divided into chapters for quicker download. 

Cover Page (06/02) 78 KB 
Regional and Satellite Offices 
Introduction and Table of Contents (06/02) 20 KB 
Chapter 1: 2001 Air Quality Highlights (06/02) 101 KB 

Chapter 2: Missouri Emissions Inventory System (MoEIS) and Electronic Permit Application 

(06/02) 1 8 KB 




Chapter 3 
Chapter 4 
Chapter 5 
Chapter 6 
Chapter 7 



Major Air Pollutants (06/02) 18 KB > 

Clean Air Standards and Health Effects of Air Pollution (06/02) 47 KB 
Air Quality Monitoring Sites in Missouri (06/02) 108 KB 
Missouri's Air Quality (06/02) 36 KB 
Ozone in Missouri (06/02) 21 KB 



o Ozone in St. Louis (06/02) 272 KB 
o Ozone in Kansas City (06/02) 18 KB 



Chapter 8: Lead in Missouri (06/02) 147 KB 
Chapter 9: PM2.5 in Missouri (06/02) 251 KB 

Chapter 10: Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) (06/02) 40 KB 
Chapter 11: Air Pollution Information on the Internet (06/02) 28 KB 
Chapter 12: About the Air Pollution Control Program (06/02) 30 KB 
Chapter 13: Missouri Air Conservation Commission (06/02) 30 KB 
Chapter 14: Regional Haze and 2001 Rules Update (06/02) 92 KB 
Air Quality Information (06/02) 15 KB 
Glossary (06/02) 17 KB 



Land | Air 



| Water | GIS | 
Kids and Education | 



Energy | State Parks | Grants and Loans | Security and Privacy | State Home Page | Site Directory | 
Waste and Recycling | Historic Preservation | Job Opportunities | DNR Store | Search | 



Missouri 
Department of 
Natural Resources 



P.O. Box 176, Jefferson City, MO 65102 
800-361 -4827 / 573-751 -481 7 
E-mail: cleanair@dnr.mo.gov 
Revised on Monday July 05 2010 





G 









Missouri Department of Natural Resources 
Air and Land Protection Division 




Missouri Department of Natural Resources 
Air Pollution Control Program 

P.O. Box 176 
Jefferson City, MO 65102-0176 

(573) 751-4817 
www.dnr.state.mo.us/air.htm 





TABLE OF 
CONTENTS 

2001 Air Quality Highlights 2 

Missouri Emissions 

Inventory System 8 

Electronic Permit Application. ..8 

Major Air Pollutants 9 

Clean Air Standards and 
Health Effects of Air Pollution..lO 

Air Quality Monitors in 
Missouri 12 

Missouri's Air Quality 14 

Ozone in Missouri 16 

Ozone in St. Louis 17 

Controlling St. Louis Ozone 

Ozone in Kansas City 21 

Controlling Kansas City Ozone 

Lead in Missouri 22 

PM2.5 in Missouri 24 

Concentrated Animal 

Feeding Operations 25 

Air Pollution Information 

on the Internet 26 

About the Air Pollution 
Control Program 27 

Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission 29 

Air Quality Information 33 

Glossary 34 



Introductio 




As a recipient of federal funds, the Missouri 
Departmentof Natural Resources does not 
discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, 
national origin, age, sex, or disability. Any person 
who believes he or she has suffered discrimination 
may file a complaint with the Departmentof 
Natural Resources or with the Office of Equal 
Opportunity, U.S. Departmentof the Interior, 
Washington, D.C., 20240. 



Air is essential to the lives of all Missourians. Air surrounds our lives 
everywhere we go, at the grocery store, at work, even in bed sleeping. 
Because the quality of the air is so important to good health, the 
Department of Natural Resources' Air Pollution Control Program works 
diligently to keep the air clean and safe. 

Protecting Missouri's air quality requires a cooperative effort by everyone. The 
Air Pollution Control Program works with Missouri residents, businesses and 
industry, and federal, state and local governments in order to protect and 
improve the air everyone breathes. Having everyone work together is 
important in helping maintain clean air. 



Because protecting Missouri's air 
quality is a cooperative effort, the Air 
Pollution Control Program wants to 
keep everyone involved and 
informed. It is important that 
Missouri residents know how air 
pollution is created and how it affects 
their lives. The Air Pollution Control 
Program wants residents to 
understand what is being done in 
their state as well as what they can do 
in their lives to control air pollution. 

This report is one method the Air 
Pollution Control Program uses to 
distribute information to Missouri 
residents. This report contains 
information about the health impact 
of air pollutants, describes the major 
types of air pollutants, the actions 
taken to control air quality and the 
major milestones in Missouri air 
quality in the past year. 



Visit our 
Website at 

www.dnr.state.mo.us/air.htm 
for more information on: 

■ Vehicle emissions testing; 

■ Regulations for businesses 
and industry; 

■ Publications; 

■ Open burning regulations; 

■ Current air quality in St. 
Louis and Kansas City; 

■ Operating Permits on 
Public Notice. 



More information on the bold faced terms throughout the report can also be 
found in the Glossary at the end of the report. After reading this report, if you 
have questions, please call the Air Pollution Control Program at 1-800-361-4827. 

Missouri's air quality has improved over the past decade, and with everyone's 
cooperation, the Air Pollution Control Program will continue to improve the air 
you breathe. 



001 Air Quality Highligh 



Ground-Level Ozone 
in St. Louis 

Throughout the 2001 ozone season, 
only two ozone exceedances oc- 
curred in the St. Louis area. This rep- 
resents an increase of one from the 
2000 ozone season. The St. Louis area 
has a good opportunity to attain the 
National Ambient Air Quality Stan- 
dard (NAAQS) for ozone in 2002. 

St. Louis has implemented several 
control strategies in recent years to re- 
duce ground-level ozone, including 
the use of a cleaner-burning reformu- 
lated gasoline. The Stage II vapor re- 
covery program put special nozzles 
on all area gasoline pumps to catch 
fumes during re-fueling. The St. 
Louis community also launched a ve- 
hicle emissions inspection program, 
the Gateway Clean Air Program, in 
2000. 

St. Louis area residents made volun- 
tary choices to help reduce ozone, 
such as carpooling, waiting to fill 
their cars up until after 5:30 p.m., tak- 
ing the bus and avoiding the use of 
charcoal lighter fluid. For more infor- 
mation regarding ground-level ozone 
in St. Louis, see page 17. 

Gateway Clean Air Program 

The Gateway Clean Air Program en- 
tered its second year of operation as a 
primary part of Missouri's efforts to 
bring St. Louis into attainment with 
the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency's (EPA) ozone regulations. 
The program celebrated a milestone 
when it conducted its one millionth 
vehicle emissions test on Sept. 25, 
2001. The program tests vehicles in 
St. Louis, St. Charles and Jefferson 
counties and in the city of St. Louis, 
using a new enhanced emissions test- 
ing procedure. Also, vehicle emis- 
sions testing entered the second year 
of operation in Franklin County, 



using an improved basic idle emis- 
sions test. 

More information about this program 
can be found in the Gateway Clean 
Air Program Annual Report and is 
available by visiting the following 
Web sites: gatewaycleanair.com, 
www.dnr.state.mo.us /alpd /apcp /gcap/ 
or www.cleanair-stlouis .com /gcap / . 

Fuels 

The Missouri Department of Natural 
Resources continues to develop meth- 
ods for the St. Louis and Kansas City 
areas to reduce emissions of volatile 
organic compounds (VOCs) that con- 
tribute to the formation of ground- 
level ozone. St. Louis is required to 
reduce VOCs due to its status as an 
ozone nonattainment area, while the 
Kansas City reductions are contin- 
gency controls in response to viola- 
tions of the federal health-based 
ozone standard in 1995 and 1997. 

Stage II Vapor Recovery is one of the 
most effective means of reducing 
ozone violations. The department 
has developed the Missouri Perfor- 
mance Evaluation Test Procedures 
(MOPETP) to ensure that the Stage I 
and II vapor recovery equipment in 
the St. Louis ozone nonattainment 
area meet the mandatory 95 percent 
efficient requirement. The MOPETP is 
a comprehensive set of tests designed 
to determine the efficiency of gasoline 
vapor recovery systems and compo- 
nents. The department's Air Pollution 
Control Program approved a vapor 
recovery system called the Balance 
System. To date, nine different manu- 
facturers of vapor recovery equip- 
ment have been tested and approved. 
These manufacturers hold MOPETP 
approvals for more than 100 compo- 
nents of the Balance System vapor re- 
covery equipment. 



- 2- 



As of Jan. 1, 2001, only MOPETP-ap- 
proved systems and components are 
authorized for use in the St. Louis 
ozone nonattainment area. Auto 
manufacturers are in the process of 
conducting "Novel Facility" 
MOPETP testing to demonstrate 
these unique initial fueling facilities 
meet the efficient requirements. 

An operating permits process is used 
to ensure that vapor recovery equip- 
ment continues to function properly 
after being installed. To date, all serv- 
ice stations in the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area have applied for 
and received an initial operating per- 
mit. The operating permit requires fa- 
cilities to pass tests prior to receiving 
a renewed operating permit. Operat- 
ing permits are renewed on a five- 
year cycle. 

Federal reformulated gasoline (RFG) 

has been required at retail gasoline 
stations in the St. Louis ozone nonat- 
tainment area since June 1, 1999. 
Federal RFG is a gasoline formula de- 
signed to burn cleaner by adjusting 
the amount of various components 
already found in conventional gaso- 
line. RFG is required all year, not just 
during the summer. It reduces ex- 
haust emissions and evaporative 
emissions. RFG is administered and 
enforced by EPA. Phase II of the RFG 
program, which began Jan. 1, 2000, 
requires additional emission reduc- 
tions compared to Phase I RFG. 
Phase II RFG requires a minimum of 
25 percent VOC reductions, a 20 per- 
cent reduction in air toxins, and a five 
to seven percent reduction in NO x 
emissions. Another important benefit 
of RFG is that it helps ensure the ve- 
hicles emission control equipment 
continues to perform well throughout 
the life of the vehicle. 

In 2001, low Reid Vapor Pressure 
(RVP) gasoline was used during the 
summer months in the Kansas City 
ozone maintenance area. During 



summer months, low RVP gasoline 
evaporates less than conventional 
gasoline, which reduces emissions of 
VOCs. Low RVP gasoline was first 
required in St. Louis in 1994 and in 
Kansas City in 1997. In early 2001, an 
amendment to lower the summer 
RVP requirement in Kansas City from 
7.2 pounds per square inch (psi) to 7.0 
psi beginning June 1, 2001, was 
adopted. The 7.0 psi RVP require- 
ment will help Kansas City maintain 
compliance with the national ozone 
standard. 

St. Louis Attainment 
Date Extension 

The 1990 Amendments to the Clean 
Air Act set a deadline of Nov. 15, 
1996, for complying with the ozone 
standard, but the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) realized that 
some areas may be affected by air 
pollution transported from outside of 
nonattainment areas. In response to 
this realization, EPA allowed areas in- 
cluding St. Louis to apply for exten- 
sions to the attainment deadline. The 
St. Louis nonattainment area clearly 
demonstrated that emissions that 
came from outside the area were ad- 
versely impacting the air quality. 

On June 26, 2001, EPA published a 
final rule in the Federal Register 
granting an attainment date exten- 
sion for the St. Louis ozone nonat- 
tainment area. The St. Louis area re- 
tains its moderate nonattainment 
classification and has a new attain- 
ment deadline of Nov. 15, 2004. EPA 
determined that the plans submitted 
by Missouri and Illinois included suf- 
ficient control measures to demon- 
strate that the St. Louis area will 
reach the national ambient air qual- 
ity standard. 

With this attainment date extension, 
the area avoids reclassification to seri- 
ous nonattainment status and more 
stringent construction permitting re- 
quirements. The extension allows the 



area time to show that the air quality 
plan being implemented will achieve 
cleaner air. 

Ozone Transport 

Because some nonattainment areas 

are affected by air pollution from 
sources outside the area, initiatives 
involving the study of transported 
emissions and regional controls are 
becoming more common. In October 
1998, EPA issued a rule, known as the 
Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ) State Im- 
plementation Plan (SIP) Call. This 
NO x SIP Call would have required 
Missouri to reduce emissions of NO x , 
a commonly transported air pollutant 
that contributes to ozone formation. 
EPA's modeling indicated that the 
transport of pollutants from Missouri 
contributes to ozone problems in Illi- 
nois, Indiana, Michigan and Wiscon- 
sin. After several legal challenges, the 
EPA's NO x SIP Call became effective 
for 19 of the 22 originally named 
states, excluding Missouri, Georgia 
and Wisconsin. 

In 2000, the Missouri Air Conserva- 
tion Commission adopted a state- 
wide rule to reduce NO x emissions. 
Missouri's statewide NO x rule is in- 
tended to improve air quality in the 
St. Louis ozone nonattainment area. 
Missouri's statewide NO x rule, 10 
CSR 10-6.350, will reduce the emis- 
sions of NO x from electric generating 
units and establish a NO x emissions 
trading program for the entire state. 
Some facilities have started reducing 
their NO x emissions ahead of sched- 
ule and have requested early reduc- 
tion credits under the program. 

EPA published a NO x SIP call for 
Missouri on Feb. 22, 2002, in the Fed- 
eral Register. At this time, Missouri 
is evaluating the current statewide 
NO x regulation and the NO x SIP call 
to determine what Missouri's re- 
sponse will be. 



- 3 - 



Emissions Banking and 
Trading 

The department participated in the 
creation of an amendment to the Mis- 
souri Air Conservation Law, which 
mandates the development of an 
emissions banking and trading pro- 
gram for the nonattainment and 
maintenance areas in Missouri. This 
legislation became effective Aug. 28, 

2001. It requires the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission to adopt 
a rule that will establish a "Missouri 
Air Emissions Banking and Trading 
Program." 

The department is developing the 
rule through a workgroup process 
with interested parties, including fa- 
cilities from the nonattainment and 
maintenance areas, environmental 
groups and EPA. The workgroup 
process began in October 2001 and is 
projected to be completed in April 

2002. The department expects the 
final rule to be effective in March 
2003. 

Emissions banking and trading pro- 
grams allow facilities to generate 
emission reduction credits (ERCs) by 
emitting below their applicable emis- 
sion standard for a particular pollu- 
tant. The ERCs can be banked, 
traded or sold to a different facility. 

These programs are helpful to facili- 
ties that are planning to expand an 
existing operation or build an addi- 
tional facility in a nonattainment or 
maintenance area. These programs 
are also economically beneficial to fa- 
cilities that consistently emit below 
their allowable levels. 

This program should help Missouri 
maintain the National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards established by the 
Clean Air Act while fostering eco- 
nomic growth. As established in the 
law, an environmental contribution of 
three percent will be subtracted from 
the bank of credits each year to pro- 
tect air quality. 



CENRAP 

The department's Air Pollution Con- 
trol Program was a founding member 
of the Central States Regional Air 
Planning Association (CENRAP), an 
organization of states, tribes, and fed- 
eral agencies. CENRAP is one of the 
five Regional Planning Organizations 
across the U.S. and includes the states 
and tribal areas of Nebraska, Kansas, 
Oklahoma, Texas, Minnesota, Iowa, 
Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana. 
The organization was chartered to 
initiate and coordinate activities asso- 
ciated with the management of re- 
gional haze and other air quality 
transport issues involving the central 
states. CENRAP promotes the fed- 
eral visibility rules through the coor- 
dination of science and technology to 
support air quality policy issues. 
CENRAP is developing a set of rec- 
ommended strategies that its mem- 
bers may choose in their individual 
implementation programs, regula- 
tions and laws. 

Cooperative Development of 
Regulations 

Involving the public in the process of 
making air quality rules helps to cre- 
ate fair, effective regulations that have 
broad support. In 2001, the depart- 
ment continued its commitment to 
public participation by convening 
workgroups to help develop air regu- 
lations. A workgroup brings industry 
and the public together with govern- 
ment agencies to share concerns and 
exchange ideas while developing reg- 
ulations. 

The department worked with leaders 
from industry, environmental organi- 
zations and local governments to im- 
prove air quality in the Kansas City 
area. The department participated as 
a member of the Mid-America Re- 
gional Council in the development of 
an air quality improvement plan for 
the Kansas City ozone maintenance 
area. The Kansas City ozone mainte- 
nance area includes Johnson and 
Wyandotte counties in Kansas and 



- 4- 



Clay, Jackson and Platte counties in 
Missouri. 

The department actively participates 
in air quality meetings of the two 
major metropolitan planning organi- 
zations, East- West Gateway Coordi- 
nating Council in St. Louis and Mid- 
America Regional Council in Kansas 
City. At these public meetings, the 
department provides updates on air 
quality projects and discusses pro- 
posed rules and plans with other par- 
ticipants. 

Permit Streamlining 
Workgroups 

The department's Air Pollution Con- 
trol Program participated in the Gov- 
ernor's Streamlining Efforts - Mis- 
souri Results Initiative. The issue 
addressed was permit efficiency in 
the construction and operating per- 
mit units. The mission of the Mis- 
souri Results Initiative was to reduce 
processing time by 80 percent. 

The Missouri Results Initiative con- 
ducted two parallel workgroups 
within the Air Pollution Control Pro- 
gram, one for Construction Permits 
(CP) and one for Operating Permits 
(OP). The names of the workgroups 
are Managing For Results - CP and 
OP, respectively. The workgroups 
consisted of members from the Air 
Pollution Control Program, the de- 
partment's regional offices, environ- 
mental groups and regulated indus- 
try. The primary goals were to 
improve the quality of air permits, 
decrease the number of complaints 
and issues, and improve turnaround 
time on issuing permits while contin- 
uing to improve and protect the air 
quality of Missouri. 

The workgroups flowcharted the per- 
mitting processes and identified a tar- 
get for the 80 percent reduction. The 
workgroups presented their recom- 
mendations to the department's man- 
agement in February 2002. 



Operating Permits 

In 2001, the Operating Permit Unit 
progressed toward issuing all of the 
initial Part 70 State Installation Oper- 
ating Permits. At year's end, 384 Part 
70 Operating Permits, or 86 percent, 
had either completed the initial tech- 
nical and peer review, had been is- 
sued or closed out. Permits that had 
undergone technical and peer review 
still need to be reviewed by the pub- 
lic and EPA. This process normally 
can be completed in two to three 
months, although routine objections 
received by the Air Pollution Control 
Program could delay this process. 

Overall, the Operating Permit Unit 
completed 638 permitting actions. 
Those actions involved Part 70, Inter- 
mediate and Basic Operating Permit 
applications. 

In 2001, the Air Pollution Control Pro- 
gram began posting drafts of operat- 
ing permits on the program's Web 
site for public review. The docu- 
ments remain on the Web throughout 
the public notice process, to enable 
citizens to have easier access to the 
documents. To view the operating 
permit drafts, visit 

http: / /www.dnr.state.mo.us /alpd /a 
pep /PermitPublicNotices.htm. 

New Source Review Permits 

Among the 670 New Source Review 
permit actions completed in 2001, no- 
table major level construction permits 
were issued for Ag Processing Inc., 
Associated Electric Cooperative Inc - 
Holden Power Plant and Panda 
Montgomery Power. 

Also, the New Source Review Unit re- 
cently completed a significant project 
jointly with the Missouri Limestone 
Producer's Association. Together 
they developed an automated com- 
puter spreadsheet that allows the 
limestone quarry operators to quickly 
and efficiently determine the level of 
operations of their equipment at any 
particular site in Missouri that meets 



or exceeds the air pollution control 
requirements. More information on 
the automated computer spreadsheet 
is available on page 8. 

The draft construction permits may be 
found on the Program's Web site by 
visiting http: / / www.dnr.state.mo.us / 
alpd/apep /PermitPublicNotices.htm 



New Source Review Permits 

Issued by Air Pollution 
Control Program, 1991-2001 



1200 
1100 
1000 
900 
800 
700 
600 
500 
400 
300 
200 
100 




II III III III III III III III III II 

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 
Years 



Initial Review Unit 

In year 2001, the Initial Review Unit 
was created to implement one of the 
more significant Office of the State 
Auditor recommendations regarding 
reorganizing the functions of the 
New Source Review (NSR) Unit. The 
establishment of this unit will en- 
hance the performance of Air Pollu- 
tion Control Program permitting sec- 
tion by more effectively screening 
permit applications. The goal for the 
Initial Review Unit is to streamline 
both the construction and operating 
permit application process by screen- 
ing out incomplete applications, re- 
ducing the frequency of applications 
that are put on hold to wait for addi- 
tional information and improving 
customer service. 



- 5 - 



Enforcement Actions 
and Results 

The department's Air Pollution Con- 
trol Program performed 1,750 station- 
ary source inspections in the 2001 cal- 
endar year. The program also issued 
996 Notices of Violation (NOVs) in 
2001. Settlements were reached in 213 
cases. These settlements resulted in 
paid penalties totaling $296,606 and 
suspended penalties totaling 
$388,250. The department referred 22 
cases to the MissouriAttorney Gen- 
eral's Office. 

Asbestos 

Federal regulations require that all 
buildings must be inspected for the 
presence of asbestos-containing mate- 
rials (ACM) before they are renovated 
or demolished. A Missouri-certified 
inspector must conduct the inspec- 
tion. In most cases, ACM must be re- 
moved before beginning renovation 
or demolition. During 2001, the Air 
Pollution Control Program received 
notification of 1,126 regulated proj- 
ects and conducted 498 inspections. 

Owners or contractors of demolition 
or renovation operations must submit 
a notice of intent to demolish or reno- 
vate a structure to the department's 
Air Pollution Control Program 10 
working days prior to start of opera- 
tion for review and approval. Single 
family homes of four or fewer 
dwelling units are not subject to the 
regulations. However, when more 
than one residential structure is in- 
volved on the same city block per 
one-year period, or if the residential 
structure will be used for fire train- 
ing, the regulations apply. 

EPA Audit 

In April 2001, EPA published an audit 
report that praised the Department of 
Natural Resources Air Pollution Con- 
trol Program efforts and provided 
some helpful information to improve 
its processes. 



The audit, conducted in July 2000, 
was part of the EPA Region 7's effort 
to review each state's air quality pro- 
gram once every four years. The De- 
partment of Natural Resources Air 
Pollution Control Program director 
consented to be the first state in EPA 
Region 7 to participate in the compre- 
hensive review. 

The audit outlined suggestions for 
the collection of emission inventory 
data. For example, EPA suggests that 
the information collected from indus- 
try include emission release point 
types. The different type of emission 
sources can vary greatly, such as stack 
emissions and fugitive dust emis- 
sions. The report recommends revis- 
ing the emission inventory forms to 
collect all necessary information. 

The audit reported that the depart- 
ment's Air Pollution Control Program 
is running a very competent permit- 
ting program. Unfortunately, high 
staff turnover makes this difficult. 
The audit recommends increasing 
staff salaries to ensure positions are 
competitive with the private sector. In 
addition, the audit suggested more 
outreach and education be provided 
to the regulated community regard- 
ing permitting requirements. Accord- 
ing to EPA Region 7, this would re- 
duce the number of sources 
constructing without a permit. 

In regards to enforcement issues, the 
audit recommends that a penalty pol- 
icy be developed to establish consis- 
tency and ensure fairness when as- 
sessing penalties against violators. 
The audit also recommends that the 
inspection forms be revised to contain 
more significant applicability require- 
ments. 

Regarding the program's planning ef- 
forts, EPA notes that the program has 
developed a Rulemaking Manual that 
provides all the necessary informa- 



- 6- 



tion to draft, propose and finalize a 
new or revised rule. Developing this 
manual has resulted in a significant 
improvement in the quality and time- 
liness of rulemaking and in the sub- 
mittal of state implementation plans. 

The audit praised the department's 
new emissions inventory system, 
MoEIS. This system is designed to 
enable sources to enter information 
directly using the Internet. MoEIS is 
expected to reduce staff workload 
and minimize data entry errors. 

The audit also commended the de- 
partment's ability to coordinate with 
regional offices and local agencies. 
The audit noted that the relationship 
between these offices seemed to be 
"symbiotic and mutually beneficial." 

The entire report is available online at 
www.dnr.state.mo.us/alpd/apcp/ep 
asum2000.htm. 

The Small Business 
Compliance Advisory 
Committee 

Small businesses are often focused on 
their day-to-day operations and may 
find it difficult to keep up with 
changing air pollution regulations 
and requirements. Section 507 of the 
1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amend- 
ments recognized this and required 
states to develop a three-component 
assistance program to help small 
businesses. The three components 
are a small business ombudsman, a 
technical assistance program for 
small businesses and a compliance 
advisory panel. In Missouri, the com- 
pliance advisory panel is known as 
the Small Business Compliance Advi- 
sory Committee. 

The Small Business Compliance Ad- 
visory Committee is comprised of 
seven members. Two are appointed 
by the governor, one each is ap- 
pointed by the majority and minority 



leaders of the Missouri House and 
Senate, and one is appointed by the 
director of the Department of Natural 
Resources. The committee has the 
following responsibilities: 

• Receive reports from the small 
business ombudsman (governor's 
office); 

• Evaluate the impact of the Air Con- 
servation Law and related regula- 
tions on small business; 

• Make recommendations to the De- 
partment of Natural Resources, the 
Missouri Air Conservation Com- 
mission and the General Assembly 
regarding changes in procedure, 
rule or law that would help small 
businesses comply with the Air 
Conservation Law; 

• Make recommendations to the Mis- 
souri Air Conservation Commis- 
sion on rules to expedite the review 
of modifications for small business; 
and 

• Conduct hearings and make inves- 
tigations consistent with the pur- 
poses of the small business techni- 
cal assistance activities. 

Currently there are seven individuals 
serving on the committee that is 
chaired by Jack Lonsinger. Jack Lon- 
singer, Joel Braun, Dan Bunch and 
Doug Weible represent industry. 
Bruce Morrison and Caroline Pufalt 
represent the general public. Walter 
Pearson represents the Department of 
Natural Resources. 

Small businesses face compliance is- 
sues in environmental areas other 
than air pollution. Steve Mahfood, 
Director of the Department of Nat- 
ural Resources, asked the Small Busi- 
ness Compliance Advisory Commit- 
tee to expand its scope to deal with 
these other issues. The Committee 
worked hard to become familiar with 
the other media this year, and dealt 
specifically with water permitting is- 
sues that very small slaughterhouses 
were having. 



The small business technical assis- 
tance activity is performed by the 
Outreach and Assistance Center, a 
non-regulatory service of the Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources. Outreach 
and Assistance's business assistance 
unit carries out the activities and pro- 
vides administrative support to the 
Small Business Compliance Advisory 
Committee. The mission of the de- 
partment's Outreach and Assistance 
Center is to provide information, as- 
sistance, education and training to 
business owners, farmers, local gov- 
ernments and the general public on 
how to control or reduce pollution. 
For more information, contact the 
Outreach and Assistance Center at 
1-800-361-4827 or (573) 526-6627. 

Emissions Fees Workgroup 
Members of the Missouri Air Con- 
servation Commission, industry rep- 
resentatives and staff from the Air 
Pollution Control Program met dur- 
ing fall 2001 to review the cost of ef- 
forts to reduce air pollution in Mis- 
souri. Three meetings were held 
around the state in St. Louis, Kansas 
City, and Osage Beach, in conjunction 
with public meetings held by the 
Missouri Air Conservation Commis- 
sion. This workgroup looked at 
whether the existing air emission fee 
was adequate to fund all the efforts 
needed to comply with the federal 
Clean Air Act. The conclusion of the 
workgroup was that an increase in 
the fee was needed to maintain exist- 
ing air pollution control efforts in the 
state. 

The next step in the process will be 
for the Air Pollution Control Program 
to propose a rule amendment to raise 
the air emission fee and submit the 
proposed rule to the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission during 
the March 28, 2002 public hearing. 
The proposed rule is expected to raise 
the fee from $25.70 to $31 per ton of 
regulated air pollutant. 



- 7 - 




The Department of Natural Re- 
sources' Air Pollution Control 
Program has been working with 
Tier Technologies to develop the Mis- 
souri Emission Inventory System 
(MoEIS), an integrated emissions in- 
ventory system. By combining all 
emissions inventory data into one 
database, MoEIS ensures more accu- 
rate and efficient data. This new sys- 
tem will benefit both the Department 
of Natural Resources and industry. 

Department staff will be able to access 
emissions data from one database in- 
stead of searching multiple systems. 
MoEIS will also reduce the staff time 
needed for data entry since the infor- 
mation will only need to be entered 
once. By reducing the number of times 
data must be entered, the number of 
errors will also be reduced. In addi- 
tion, MoEIS automatically conducts 
quality checks on the data entered to 
help ensure the integrity of the data. 

The new system can filter site informa- 
tion by various categories and break 
the information down into subgroups. 
These features will make it easier to re- 
spond to requests for specific data. 
MoEIS was also developed using com- 
mon formats, which makes data shar- 
ing easier, especially when transferring 
data to EPA. In fact, EPA praised the 
first inventory sent by the department 
using MoEIS. 

When the current development phase 
is complete, MoEIS will greatly reduce 
the reporting burden placed on indus- 
try by allowing electronic submittal of 
Emissions Inventory Questionnaires 
(EIQs). The electronic EIQs should 
also save industry significant time 
when submitting data. Instead of hav- 
ing to enter the same information on 
multiple forms, MoEIS will automati- 
cally transfer the information from one 
form to another. Data will also be able 
to be transferred from one year to the 
next. The online system is available 24 



hours a day, until a company submits 
their information for the reporting pe- 
riod. 

MoEIS has gone through three phases 
of development. In 1999, the depart- 
ment began the construction of the 
emissions inventory system by com- 
bining the four existing systems into 
one integrated system. This new sys- 
tem combined over 7,000 Paradox ta- 
bles and Access databases. The second 
phase was the evaluation of software 
for creating the online application of 
MoEIS. The department, with the help 
of Tier Technologies, evaluated three 
Web development tools in order to find 
the best selection to fit their needs. The 
third and current phase of the project is 
the development of a Web portal that 
will allow the regulated community to 
submit their EIQs online. 

MoEIS is designed to allow for further 
expansion in the future. Additional 
components can be added to accom- 
modate other functions. The Air Pollu- 
tion Control Program hopes to con- 
tinue the development of the system to 
allow online permit applications and 
fee payments. MoEIS is the depart- 
ment's first effort into electronic gov- 
ernment and Government-to-Business 
transactions. 



Electronic Permit 
Application 



The Department of Natural 
Resources' Air Pollution Control 
Program, working with the 
Missouri Limestone Producers 
Association and Trinity Consultants, 
has created an electronic New Source 
Review Permit Application /Permit 
Review Program for stone quarrying 
and crushing plants. The electronic 
permits will be issued more quickly, 
consistently and with less cost. 

The electronic application is based on a 
Microsoft Excel, spreadsheet. Appli- 
cants enter information about haul 
roads, storage piles and process equip- 
ment. The software calculates the am- 



bient impact and emissions. This al- 
lows the applicant to know if the per- 
mit can be issued as submitted before- 
hand and if so what conditions would 
apply. The Air Pollution Control Pro- 
gram will assure the proper data was 
entered and the software was used cor- 
rectly. 

Applicants can also use the software to 
help make business decisions before 
applying for their permit. The spread- 
sheet can analyze various operating 
scenarios and their effects on air qual- 
ity thus allowing the applicant to tailor 
the proposed plant to the property. 

"To the best of our knowledge, this is 
the first electronic application that also 
performs ambient dispersion modeling 
and ambient impact analysis and 
therefore lets the applicants make deci- 
sions before submitting their applica- 
tion," said Roger Randolph, Director of 
the Air Pollution Control Program. 

The electronic permit will also shorten 
the time it takes to issue a stone quar- 
rying and processing plant permit. By 
receiving complete applications, the 
time it takes for staff to review a permit 
before issuing will decrease signifi- 
cantly while increasing the consistency 
of the permits and protecting the air 
quality. The electronic permit will also 
greatly reduce paperwork since appli- 
cations will be submitted on disk in- 
stead of on paper, which then has to be 
transferred into the spreadsheet. 

The stone quarrying electronic permit 
application was approved on May 31, 
2001. The application includes instruc- 
tions for installing the software, a 
workbook with instructions on how 
to complete the data files, a user's 
guide, department policies related to 
the permitting process, and an exam- 
ple project. 

For information about how to receive 
an electronic permit application, call 
the Department of Natural Resources' 
Environmental Assistance Office, for- 
mally known as the Technical Assis- 
tance Program, at 1-800-361-4827 or 
visit http: \ \ www.dnr.state.mo.us/ oac. 



- 8- 



I 



ajor Air Pollutant 




The measurements for air 
quality in Missouri are the 
National Ambient (outdoor) 
Air Quality Standards established by 
EPA under the Clean Air Act. The 
standards address six "criteria 
pollutants" considered harmful to 
public health and the environment: 
ozone, lead, inhalable particles, 
carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide 
and sulfur dioxide. These standards 
are found on page 11. 

Ozone 

Ground-level ozone is a colorless gas, 
the most harmful part is sometimes 
call "smog." Ozone is not directly 
emitted. It forms on hot, stagnant 
summer days when sunlight causes a 
reaction between volatile organic 
compounds (VOC) and nitrogen 
oxides (NO x ). Vehicles, power plants 
and industrial boilers are common 
sources of NO x . Gasoline-powered 
vehicles and manufacturing 
operations are major sources of VOCs. 

There are two types of ozone: 
stratospheric (upper atmosphere) and 
ground-level ozone. Ozone in the 
stratosphere occurs naturally and is 
desirable, shielding the earth from 
harmful ultraviolet rays. Ozone at the 
ground level irritates the respiratory 
system, causing congestion, chest 
pains, nausea and labored breathing. 
It also aggravates existing lung and 
heart conditions such as asthma. 

Airborne Lead 

In Missouri, airborne lead and its 
compounds are produced mainly by 
lead smelters. Airborne lead poses 
the greatest danger to children under 
age six, therefore the standard has 
been established to protect their 
health. In 1985, 73 percent of airborne 



lead came from vehicle exhaust pipes. 
By 1988, it decreased to 34 percent 
due to federal controls on gasoline 
that started in the mid-1970s. 

Inhalable Particles 

Inhalable particles include airborne 
dust, pollen, soot and aerosol sprays. 
Scientists also refer to these as 
"particulate matter." Current federal 
standards apply to particles less than 
10 microns in diameter, or PMio, 
emitted mainly by vehicles, industry 
and farms. Wind and rainfall cause 
seasonal variations in PMio. In 1997, 
EPA set new standards for even 
smaller particles less than 2.5 microns 
in diameter, or PM2.5. 

Carbon Monoxide 

Carbon monoxide (CO), formed by 
the incomplete combustion of fuel, is 
one of the most common pollutants. 
More than 75 percent of CO emissions 
come from vehicle exhaust. The high- 
est concentrations are caused by heavy 
traffic in metropolitan areas. Though 
deadly, CO changes quickly to carbon 
dioxide, which is not dangerous. 

Nitrogen Dioxide 

Almost all nitrogen dioxide (NO x ) is 

man-made. When fuel is burned 
above 1200 degrees Fahrenheit, 
nitrogen dioxide can form. Principal 
sources of nitrogen dioxide include 
power plants, industrial boilers and 
vehicles. 

Sulfur Dioxide 

Sulfur oxides form through the 
burning of fuels that contain sulfur, 
such as coal and oil, by smelting 
metals and by other industrial 
processes. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) 
composes about 95 percent of these 
gases. 



Other Air 
Pollutants 

In addition to the six criteria 
pollutants, the Department 
of Natural Resources' Air 
Pollution Control Program 
also regulates other 
pollutants, including 
asbestos and hazardous air 
pollutants. 

Asbestos 

Asbestos is a naturally 
occurring mineral that takes 
the form of hollow 
microscopic fibers. Before 
being identified as a cancer- 
causing agent, asbestos was 
widely used for insulation 
and fireproofing. With age, 
it breaks down and becomes 
a hazard to anyone who 
breathes its airborne fibers. 
Federal and state laws 
regulate the removal of 
asbestos from buildings and 
the Department of Natural 
Resources monitors these 
activities. 

Hazardous Air 
Pollutants (HAPS) 

Some air pollutants can 
cause quick and painful 
death, cancer, reproductive 
disorders and 

environmental damage such 
as acid rain. EPA has 
designated these pollutants 
as hazardous air pollutants. 
These pollutants may 
present a hazard to public 
health and safety if released 
in sufficient quantity. 



- 9 - 



lean Air Standar 



_ 



The Clean Air Act established 
two types of national air 
quality standards, primary and 
secondary. Primary standards set 
limits to protect public health, 
including the health of "sensitive" 
populations such as children, the 
elderly and those with respiratory 
illnesses. Secondary standards set 
limits to protect public welfare, 
including protection against 
decreased visibility, damage to 
animals, crops, vegetation and 
buildings. 

New Standards 

In 1997, EPA established new health- 
based standards for ground-level 
ozone and fine particulate matter. 
Extensive scientific review showed 
that the changes to the standards 
were necessary to protect public 
health and the environment. 
However, the new standards were 
challenged in court. In May 1999, the 
U.S. Court of Appeals for the District 
of Columbia Circuit declared that the 
new standards were not enforceable. 
EPA appealed this decision to the U.S. 
Supreme Court. The Supreme Court 
decision upheld the new EPA 
standards, although it ordered EPA to 
revise its ozone implementation 
strategy. It also required EPA to 
continue to implement the previous 
ozone and particulate matter 
standards. 

Fine Particulate Matter: 
PM2.5 versus PMio 

In revising the air quality standards, 
EPA created new standards for PM2.5 
(fine particulate matter less than 2.5 



microns in diameter). EPA's scientific 
review concluded that fine particles 
(PM2.5) that penetrate deeply into the 
lungs, are more damaging to human 
health than the coarse particles 
known as PM10 Fine particles are 
more likely than coarse particles to 
contribute to such health effects as 
premature death, increased hospital 
admissions and emergency visits, 
especially for the elderly and 
individuals with cardiopulmonary 
disease. However, coarse particles 
can accumulate in the respiratory 
system and aggravate health 
problems such as asthma, and the 
standards for PM10 particles are 
retained. 

Air Quality Monitors in 
Missouri 

In 2001, the Missouri Air Pollution 
Monitoring Network included 111 
monitors of three types: national 
monitors, state and local agency 
monitors and special-purpose 
monitors. National monitors have 
been established to provide data on 
national trends. State and local 
agencies operate permanent monitors 
to measure ambient concentrations of 
those pollutants for which National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards have 
been set. Special-purpose monitors 
are placed to gather representative 
data as well as worst-case 
occurrences. Data is also being 
collected at 44 meteorological 
monitors operating throughout the 
state. The data collected at these 
monitors is used for analysis and 
modeling purposes. 



-10- 




CRITERIA AIR 
POLLUTANT 

Carbon 
Monoxide 




AVERAGING 
TIME 

Eight-hour 
maximum 3 

One-hour 
maximum 3 



Maximum 
Quarterly 
Arithmetic 
Mean 



PRIMARY 
STANDARD 

9 ppm 
(10 mg/m3) 

35 ppmb 
(40 mg/m3) < 



1.5 ug/m3 



SECONDARY 
STANDARD 

None 



None 



Same As 
Primary 
Standard 




Nitrogen 
Dioxide 



Annual 
Arithmetic 
Mean 



0.05 ppm 
(100 ug/m3) 



0.12 ppm 
(235 ug/m3) 



Same As 
Primary 
Standard 



Same As 
Primary 
Standard 




Particulate 

Matter 

(PMio) 



Sulfur 
Dioxide 




Annual 
Arithmetic 
Mean 

24-hour 
average^ 

Annual 
Arithmetic 
Mean 

24-hour 
maximum 3 

Three-hour 
maximum 3 



50 ug/m3 



150 ug/m3 



0.03 ppm 
(80 ug/m3) 



0.14 ppm 
(365 ug/m3) 



Same As 
Primary 
Standard 




0.5 ppm 
(1300 ug/m3) 



HEALTH 
EFFECTS 



Impaired vision and manual dexterity 
weakness and mental dullness. At 
high levels: vomiting, fast pulse and 
breathing, followed by slow pulse and 
breathing, then collapse and 
unconsciousness. 

Low doses damage the central 
nervous system of children and 
unborn infants, causing seizures, 
mental retardation and behavioral 
disorders. In children and adults lead 
causes fatigue, disturbed sleep, 
decreased fitness and damage to 
kidneys, liver and blood-forming 
organs. High levels damage the 
nervous system and cause seizures, 
coma and death. 

Lung inflammation and lower 
resistance to infections like bronchitis 
and pneumonia. Suspected of causing 
acute respiratory diseases in children. 

Throat irritation, congestion, chest 
pains, nausea and labored breathing. 
Aggravation of existing lung or heart 
conditions, allergies and asthma-. 
Ozone is especially harmful to those 
who work or play outside. Ozone is 
also harmful to plant life, damaging 
forests and reducing crop yields. 

Increased likelihood of chronic or 
acute respiratory illness. Difficulty 
breathing, aggravation of existing 
respiratory or cardiovascular illness 
and lung damage. 



Irritation of throat and lungs with 
difficulty in breathing. Aggravation of 
existing respiratory or cardiovascular 



illness. 



a Not to be exceeded more than once a year for primary and secondary 

standards, 
b mg/m3 = milligrams per cubic meter. 

c Established for a three year average of the fourth highest daily 
maximum value. 



d ppm = part per million. 

e mg/ m3 = micrograms per cubic meter. 

f No more than one expected exceedance, three year average. 



-11- 



■kvmhmbnta1 served program 

mm mtknami-: 

91 &atb 7.'9 Hwy SI Jfm* 

wl St ji >^[>t Levee 

S3 i:*4ndM»:bdl5lIo»tj* 

lM Ll [ Wmlj^priL-L;; 

t>!< W^ins Mill Sett Pari. 

ll*> 33 A C -.iiiiii. 1 1 nine i i^ni 

Uf Nwlli KrfllbH ! "«1 

tC S»|«r"rtcfc 

■" Y l t . r I 

!«■ McwilDin View 

.-• I. ..,..„, 

d DRiiUllllU 

11 DR<j rnxktl 

1 1 IHl. I Lnytlll MnliilUi. 

I» i triUff SIM 

I* DRH DuniJm High School HerrjuLiiKiiii 

1 1 ^moMTniltfoofc * Tcnhr^Ji 

11 DRH SOI Hiculna 
" i.. in. 

2* I ""J* Sc-ulh 

12 Jtak Twer* 5Mt- Pari 
m H», 5U Wen Aunii 
II Orchard Farm 
^ B*mne lerre 
Iri Sta GnwYlriw 



Air Quality Monitoring Sites in Missouri 



5tt uouismr Arc 

SITE SITENrVslE 

li. \«m u.l. I 

37 H227 S Dradwai R Hack 

II 1133 (tart I ruin 

;v> :inl * (i 

<u link* Wnr.h-.iH.> 

II 11.11 ■-,!„, I t I .--„ 

42 

li Mine. , 



>. i-.- • .. in i il r , 

UIE JITfNAME 
• •■ •» Pumu H ll 
N t Wrabaur *flF 
» 7M TrocH 
JO 27ft* Vja Brum 
?l KkhadJ rjciiiur Iwulh 
SI -Win ttua Sircci 
11 MO tVowliriY 
M I Jt7 Lacun 
»J ll«ONrjc*?l H*j Ktl 




SPRHGTIELD-OTtEENE COUMIV 
SITE SITE NAME 
» J»12 5 Ctokiton 
H MM MO Sins 
52 tMlemtStfttl 
47 In RmrSuulli 
IMl > fikn«*iiie 



— II — 



— 13 - 



issouri's Air Qualit 



The air quality in Missouri 
meets EPA's accepted levels, 
except for two specific areas. 
During the summer months, the St. 
Louis area has repeatedly exceeded 
the ozone standard and is designated 
by EPA as a moderate-level 
"nonattainment area" for ozone. This 
area includes the city of St. Louis and 
Franklin, Jefferson, St. Charles and St. 
Louis counties (see page 17), as well 
as Madison, Monroe and St. Clair 
counties in Illinois. A small area near 
a lead smelter in Jefferson County 
still exceeds federal standards for 
airborne lead (see page 22). 



Air Quality Trends 

The department monitors air 
concentrations of the six criteria 
pollutants at selected locations 
throughout the state. Most areas of 
the state are in attainment of the air 
quality standards. 

The graphs below are representative 
of general trends of ambient air data 
from four pollutants including CO, 
NO x , SO x and PM 10 . See Major Air 
Pollutants on page 11 for more 
information on sources of these 
pollutants and their health effects. The 
overall trend as shown by the four 
graphs below is improved air quality. 



Air Quality Trends at 
Selected Locations 



NITROGEN DIOXIDE 
ANNUAL MEAN, ppm 

South Lindbergh, Affton 1992-2001 



0.05 
0.04 
0.03 
0.02 
0.01 
0.00 



Standard = .05 ppm* 



(parts per million)* 



92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 
Years 



SULFUR DIOXIDE 
2nd 24-hr MAX, ppm 

South Charleston, Springfield 1992-2001 



0.14 
0.12 
0.10 
0.08 
0.06 
0.04 
0.02 
0.00 



Standard = .14 ppm* 



(parts per million)* 



- 1 H 
















In 







92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 
Years 



CARBON MONOXIDE 
2nd 8-hr MAX, ppm 
St. Charles Rock Road, St. Ann 1992-2001 



Standard = .9 ppm* 



(parts per million)* 



92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 
Years 

PM10 ANNUAL 
MEAN, ppm 

St. Joseph, Missouri 1992-2001 



Standard = 50 Ug/m 3 * (micro grams per cubic meter)* 



92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 
Years 



-14- 



Emission Trends 

In 1999, Missouri expanded its emis- 
sion inventory submittal to EPA to add 
area and mobile sources to the point 
source information. Area sources are 
the smaller businesses and local and 
regional activities such as pesticide ap- 
plications, highway painting and open 
burning. On-Road mobile sources en- 
compass passenger and commercial 
vehicles, while off -road mobile sources 
include construction equipment, mo- 
torized recreation vehicles and small 
machines like lawnmowers. 

The graphs at the right show the total 
emissions of the criteria pollutants 



that Missouri facilities reported for 
the years 1993 to 2000. As reflected in 
the graphs, facilities have generally 
reported decreased emissions. Since 
1993, facilities have reduced PMi 
emissions 57 percent, while VOC 
emissions have dropped 42 percent. 
Sulfur oxide emissions dropped 46 
percent since 1993. Industries have 
also reported a 26 percent decline in 
the emission of NO x since 1993. 

NO x emissions are expected to con- 
tinue to decline between now and 
2007. EPA's NO x State Implementa- 
tion Plan (SIP) call will require a re- 
duction in NO x emissions of approxi- 



Top Point Emission 
Sources for NO x 


Tons of NO x contributed 
by these sources in 2000 


Percent of total 


(1) Electricity Generation 


163,432.45 
















(4) Natural Gas 






(5) Pipeline 






(6) All Others 


13,878.99 




Total: 


202,888.72 






Top Point Emission 
Sources for PM 10 


Tons of PM 10 contributed 
by these sources in 2000 


Percent of total 


(1) Electricity Generation 


4,718.87 


20.4% 


(2) Lime and Limestone Production 


3,536.55 


15.3% 


(3) Charcoal Production 


3,091.76 


13.4% 














(6) Concrete 


591.55 




(7) Fertilizer Manufacturing 




















Sources for VOCs 


by these sources in 2000 


Percent of total 














(3) Aluminum 






(4) Cement Production 


















(7) Metal Can Production 


901.32 




(8) Printing 






(9) Soybean Processing 


785.39 


2.0% 


(10) All Others 


15,747.03 


40.1% 


Total: 39,224.28 




Top Point Emission 
Sources for SO„ 


Tons of SO x contributed 
by these sources in 2000 


Percent of total 


(1) Electricity Generation 


248,505.16 


72.1% 


(2) Lead Refinery 




1 6 7% 




















(6) Chemicals 






(7) Aluminum 


3,750.19 




(8) All Others 


7,363.89 




Total: 


344,894.03 





mately 35 percent from the eastern 
one-third of Missouri. Missouri has a 
statewide NO x rule that will achieve 
slightly more emission reductions 
from electrical generating units in the 
entire state. The tables below show 
relative contributions from major in- 
dustrial sources. 

Annual Reported 
Emissions 



93 
94 
95 
52 96 
| 97 
98 
99 
00 



93 
94 
95 
52 96 
| 97 
98 
99 
00 



93 
94 
95 
52 96 
| 97 
98 
99 
00 



93 
94 
95 
52 96 
| 97 
98 
99 
00 



PM10 



10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,C 
Tons Per Year 

SOx 



200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 
Tons Per Year 



NOx 



50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 
Tons Per Year 

VOC 



20,000 40,000 

Tons Per Year 



- 15 - 



Air Quality Index: Ozone 





Levels of 
Health 
Concern 


Cautionary 
Statements 


0-50 


Good 


None 


51-100* 


Moderate 


Unusually sensitive 
people should 
consider limiting 
prolonged outdoor 
exertion. 


101-150 


Unhealthy 

for 
sensitive 
groups 


Active children and 
adults, and people 
with respiratory 
disease, such as 
asthma, should 
limit prolonged 
outdoor exertion. 


151-200 


Unhealthy 


Active children and 
adults, and people 
with respiratory 
disease, such as 
asthma, should 
avoid prolonged 
outdoor exertion; 

everyone else, 
especially children, 

should limit 
prolonged outdoor 
exertion. 


201-300 


V 
unh 


er 
ea 


y 

thy 


Active children and 
adults, and people 
with respiratory 
disease such as 
asthma, should 
avoid all outdoor 
exertion; everyone 
else, especially 
children, should 
limit outdoor 
exertion. 


301-500 


Hazardous 


Everyone should 
avoid all outdoor 
exertion. 



* Generally, an AQI of 100 for ozone 
corresponds to an ozone level of 0.08 parts 
per million (averaged over 8 hours). 



Ozone in Missouri 



Naturally occurring ozone in 
the upper atmosphere 
protects the earth from the 
sun's harmful rays. Ground-level 
ozone is an irritant that damages lung 
tissue and aggravates respiratory 
disease. The pollutant is formed 
when heat and sunlight mix with 
VOC and nitrogen oxides in the 
lower atmosphere. Ozone can trigger 
a variety of health problems. Those 
most susceptible to ozone include 
children, the elderly and individuals 
with pre-existing respiratory 
problems. Even healthy young adults 
may experience respiratory problems 
at ozone levels as low as .08 parts- 
per-million (ppm) if they remain 
outdoors for extended periods. This 
could include individuals whose jobs 
require a great deal of time outdoors, 
such as road construction workers, or 
even individuals working in their 
lawns or gardens. The table at the left 
describes the Air Quality Index 
(AQI), a system used to warn 
communities in St. Louis and Kansas 
City on days when the air may be 
dangerous to breathe. During the 
ozone season, between April 1 and 
October 31, many radio and 
television stations in the St. Louis and 



Kansas City areas provide AQI 
information on a daily basis. 

Number of Ozone Site 
Exceedances Reported 

In 2001, the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area reported two 
exceedances of the one-hour ozone 
standard. Kansas City reported no 
exceedances. The graph below shows 
the number of days St. Louis and 
Kansas City exceeded the ground- 
level ozone standard in the last 
decade. The graph at the right shows 
the number of days the St. Louis area 
exceeded the ground-level ozone 
standard in comparison to the 
number of days weather conditions 
were favorable for exceeding this 
standard. This graph reflects the 
importance of individual actions in 
controlling ozone. In recent years, 
weather conditions have been 
favorable to the formation of high 
levels of ozone in the St. Louis area 
on several days. However, through 
carpooling, postponing mowing, 
avoiding use of charcoal lighter fluid 
and many other voluntary efforts, St. 
Louis area residents were able to 
prevent high ozone levels on many of 
those days. 



Ozone Site Exceedances 




91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 



Years 

-16- 




It is considered a violation, when 
four or more exceedances of the 
one-hour health-based standard 
for ozone occur at the same monitor 
in a three-year period. When a 
violation occurs, the area is 
designated as nonattainment. 
Nonattainment areas are then divided 
into five classifications based on the 
severity of the exceedances that 
occurred at the monitor in a three- 
year period: marginal, moderate, 
serious, severe and extreme. Under 
the Clean Air Act, EPA has 
designated many areas in the country 
as nonattainment for ozone. In 1999, 
the St. Louis ozone nonattainment 
area was one of five areas nationwide 
classified as a "moderate" ozone 
nonattainment area. 

The St. Louis ozone nonattainment 
area includes the city of St. Louis, and 
the counties of St. Charles, St. Louis, 
Jefferson and Franklin in Missouri 
and Madison, Monroe and St. Clair 
counties in Illinois. The map at the 
right shows the sites for air monitors 
in the ozone nonattainment area. 



St. Louis Ozone Nonattainment Area Monitoring Sites 




91 

92 
iJJ 

<M 

ts 

** 
*T 
Ml 
** 
It 
II 



■ 1 In hii I 
Arntld 1 <i4iruulL Arnold 
W*J AIidh 
Ohrkxr J V±rm 
-I5M1 H I indlii-rrli- AIB™ 
.HiF h 1 ! l iilniuii Mil, I'.'iun in MjjL 

.1)1111 I'l Mi-.- f,r mi- I, 

IIBtil ft On R*cL fU, ft Ami 
Wi' & [troddwiiy A I In-tin. St Ld 
I IS Quk ft TwLn, ft L*ab 
MifRBrrtia, ft L+id* 



1-1 Pt..| Hu.J. LdwrffdaYllli 
15 SI N WilruLl.flrtHl Kiirr 
Ih 111 I, u.ilTpdvr.E.Hll.u.1. 




St. Louis Nonattainment Area 1-Hour Ozone 1978 - 2001 
Number of Exceedances vs. Conducive Days 



130 




Years 

-17- 



Exceedance: An exceedance oc- 
curs when levels of a certain pol- 
lutant are higher than those 
deemed safe by the federal gov- 
ernment. 

Violation: Four or more ex- 
ceedances at the same air quality 
monitor in a three-year period 
equal a violation of the one hour 
standard. 

Nonattainment: An area that has 
had a violation is classified as 
"nonattainment." Nonattain- 
ment areas are then divided into 
five categories: marginal, moder- 
ate, serious, severe and extreme. 




Missouri's State Implementa- 
tion Plan (SIP) for the St. 
Louis ozone nonattainment 
area includes control measures and 
schedules for compliance with the 
Clean Air Act in order to attain the 
federal health-based standard for 
ground-level ozone. To reduce ozone 



concentrations to safe levels, the state 
must control both industrial and mo- 
bile sources of volatile organic com- 
pounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides 
(NO x ). Cars, trucks and buses are ex- 
amples of mobile sources of VOCs. 
Major control measures benefiting St. 
Louis recently included a vehicle 
emissions inspection and mainte- 
nance program, Stage II vapor recov- 
ery systems for gasoline refueling, 
advanced emissions control systems 
for industrial sources and controls on 



Arnold 
West Alton 
Orchard Far 

t. Louis 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
St. Louis 
Affton 

Queeny Park 
Clayton 
Ferguson 
St. Ann 
Breckenridge 



Number of Days with Excessive Ozone - 

St. Louis Nonattainment Area 



Number of One-Hour Exceedances 






Arnold and Tenbrook 
Highway 9 

8227 S. Broadway 
1122 Clark and Tucker 
Newstead & Cote Brilliante 
Margaretta 
South Lindbergh 
305 Weidman 
55 Hunter Avenue 
3400 Pershall Road 
10267 St. Charles Rock Road 
9630 St. Charles Rock Road 



91 92 93 94 95 




Alton 
Maryville 
Edwardsville 
Wood River 
East St. Louis 



Illinois 

409 Main Street 
200 West Division 
Poag Road 
54 North Walcott 
13th and Tudor 



91 



1 





92 









93 

2 
1 


1 



94 
1 
1 


1 




95 
1 
1 

3 
2 
1 



96 

2 


1 




97 



1 
1 




98 






1 



99 

1 




1 





00 









01 





1 





St. Louis Nonattainment Total 



25 20 8 



12 13 



Number of Days with Excessive Ozone 

St. Louis exceeded the ozone standard each summer between 1996 and 2001. The table 
above shows the number of days that sites in Missouri and Illinois reported exceeding 
the ozone standard. The St. Louis ozone nonattainment area reported two 
exceedances of the one-hour standard during the 2001 ozone season (April 1 through 
October 31). 



-18- 



NO x emissions from utility boilers. 
The two control strategies leading to 
the greatest reductions in VOC emis- 
sions are enhanced vehicle inspection 
and maintenance and the use of refor- 
mulated gasoline. 

Conformity Analysis/ 
Determination 

In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air 
Act - section 176(c), all transportation 
plans, programs and projects are re- 
quired to conform to air quality plans 
for transportation-related pollutants 
in nonattainment and maintenance 
areas. The air quality conformity 
analysis / determination is the Clean 
Air Act requirement that calls for 
EPA, the United States Department of 
Transportation and various Missouri 
and Illinois state, regional and local 
government agencies to integrate the 
air quality and transportation plan- 
ning development process. Trans- 
portation conformity supports the de- 
velopment of transportation plans, 
programs and projects that enable 
areas to meet and maintain national 
air quality standards for ozone, par- 
ticulate matter and carbon monoxide, 
which impact human health and the 
environment. 

The East- West Gateway Coordinating 
Council conducts and coordinates the 
air quality conformity analysis / deter- 
mination for St. Louis in cooperation 
with EPA, the United States Depart- 
ment of Transportation and various 
Missouri and Illinois state, regional 
and local government agencies. Cur- 
rently, the air quality conformity 
analysis / determination is performed 
on an annual basis. 

Vehicle Emissions 
Inspections 

Programs for vehicle emissions test- 
ing and repair, or Inspection and 
Maintenance (I/M) programs, are key 
mechanisms for controlling mobile 
source emissions in many urban re- 
gions nationwide. The Gateway 
Clean Air Program is an inspection 




and maintenance program in the St. 
Louis nonattainment area imple- 
mented to control mobile source 
emissions. The Gateway Clean Air 
Program represents a large portion of 
the Department of Natural Resources' 
state implementation plan to bring 
St. Louis into compliance with the 
National Ambient Air Quality Stan- 
dards (NAAQS) for ozone. 

The Gateway Clean Air Program uses 
new emissions testing technologies. 
An enhanced emissions test simulates 
real driving conditions on a dy- 
namometer (treadmill-like device) 
during testing. This measures specific 
pollutants from vehicles much more 
precisely than the older idle testing 
system. A second test, called Rapid- 
Screen, uses a remote sensing device 
to monitor exhaust emissions while 
vehicles are being driven on roads 
and highways. RapidScreen allows 
the very cleanest-running vehicles to 
pass the new emissions test without 
visiting emissions testing stations. An 
improved version of the idle test is 
used for vehicles manufactured from 
1971 through 1980 and for vehicles 
tested in Franklin County. 



The emission standards of the en- 
hanced emissions testing procedure 
will become more stringent in 2002 ac- 
cording to state rule 10 CSR 10-5.380, 
"Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection." 
Because the emission standards will be 
more stringent, more vehicles will 
need to be repaired in order to be reg- 
istered in the nonattainment area. 
Therefore, the Gateway Clean Air Pro- 
gram will be more instrumental in 
bringing the St. Louis nonattainment 
area into attainment. 

Due to federal rulemaking published 
by EPA in 2001, the Air Pollution 
Control Program has made 
preliminary plans to modify the 
emission test requirements for 1996 
and newer model year vehicles. 
Beginning as early as January 2003, 
vehicles that are model year 1996 and 
newer will not be tested with either 
the new enhanced emissions testing 
procedure or the improved basic idle 
emissions test. Instead, these vehicles 
will only have the on-board 
diagnostics systems tested. 

On-board diagnostics is a 
computerized system that monitors 
the vehicles' emissions control 



-19- 




components. A "check engine" or 
malfunction indicator (MIL) light 
turns on if the vehicle develops a 
problem. To check a vehicle's on- 
board diagnostics, an inspector plugs 
a computer into the vehicle and 
generates a report on likely future 
emissions. Currently, the Gateway 
Clean Air Program checks 1996 and 
newer vehicles using on-board 
diagnostics and provides the report 
to motorists as an advisory only. 

Additional information about the 
Gateway Clean Air Program is 
available by visiting the following 
Web sites: gatewaycleanair.com, 
www.dnr.state.mo.us /alpd/apcp /gc 
ap/ orwww.cleanair-stlouis.com/ 
gcap/. 

Low Reid Vapor Pressure 
Gasoline and Reformulated 
Gasoline 

Since VOCs are a main component of 
ozone, many volatile organic 
compound (VOC) control measures 
have been used in the effort to reach 
attainment of the ozone standard. In 
1994, low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) 
gasoline was implemented in St. 



Louis. RVP is a measure of the 
volatility of gasoline or its tendency 
to evaporate into the air. Lowering 
RVP reduces evaporative emissions 
of gasoline. Between 1994 and 1998, a 
state regulation restricted the RVP of 
gasoline sold in the St. Louis 
nonattainment area during the 
warmest months of the year, June 1 
through Sept. 15. 

Federal reformulated gasoline (RFG) 

has been required at retail gasoline 
stations in the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area since June 1, 
1999. RFG is a gasoline formula 
designed to burn cleaner than 
conventional gasoline, and to reduce 
both exhaust and evaporative 
emissions by adjusting the amounts 
of various components already found 
in conventional gasoline. RFG is 
administered and enforced by EPA. 
Phase II of the RFG program that 
began Jan. 1, 2000, requires additional 
emission reductions compared to 
Phase I RFG. Phase II RFG requires a 
minimum of 25 percent VOC 
reductions, a 20 percent reduction in 
air toxics and a five to seven percent 
reduction in NO x emissions. 



Number of Days with Excessive Ozone - 

Kansas City Ozone Maintance Area 




Number of One-Hour Exceedances 




Site 


Address 


91 


92 


93 


94 


95 






98 


99 


00 




Kansas City 


Missouri 














\ 










Liberty 


Hwy 33 and County Hwy 

























Lawson 


Watkins Mill State Park Road 














3 








— 











Kansas City 


49th and Winchester WOF 

























Kansas City 


Richards Gebaur AFB 


1 


o 




o 





o 






o 






Belton 


203rd Street 

























Kansas City 


11500 N. 71 Hwy KCI Airport 













— 





— 


— 












Kansas 


91 


92 


93 


94 


95 


96 


97 


98 


99 


00 


01 


Wyandotte CO 


Ann Avenue 








1 








1 





1 











Total 


1 


1 


2 





9 


1 


2 


5 





2 






-20- 



NE IN KA 



nsas City 



I ■ Ihe Kansas City Metropolitan 
area was designated as a sub- 
_I_ marginal ozone nonattainment 
area under the Clean Air Act Amend- 
ments of 1990. In 1992, the Kansas 
City area demonstrated compliance 
with the standard and was redesig- 
nated to attainment and renamed an 
ozone maintenance area. The Kansas 
City ozone maintenance area includes 
Clay, Jackson and Platte counties in 
Missouri as well as Johnson and 
Wyandotte counties in Kansas. 

In 2001, Kansas City reported no ex- 
ceedances of the one-hour ozone stan- 
dard down from two exceedances in 
2000. The table at the left shows the 
number of days each site reported ex- 
ceeding the ozone standard between 
1991 and 2001. 

The states of Kansas and Missouri 
along with EPA conducted a monitor- 
ing network review during 2000. The 
review determined that two new mon- 
itoring sites should be installed. One 
site will be in north, central Clay 
County and the other in central Leav- 
enworth County. The changes to the 
network should allow for better cover- 
age during diverse meteorological con- 
ditions. 



Controlling 
Kansas City Ozone 



J 



I I Ihe Kansas City area has experi- 
enced ozone problems since the 
JL late 1970s. In response to the 
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 
EPA published two regulations that re- 
duced the Reid vapor pressure (RVP) 
of gasoline in the Kansas City area. 
From 1990 through 1997, RVP of gaso- 
line in Kansas City has been reduced 
on three occasions. The latest change 
occurred during summer 2001. The 
Department of Natural Resources and 



Kansas Department of Health and En- 
vironment required that 7.0 Reid 
Vapor Pressure gasoline be sold in the 
Kansas City Maintenance Area during 
the peak ozone season. 

The Department of Natural Resources' 
Air Pollution Control Program devel- 
oped an ozone control strategy after 
working with the Mid- America Re- 
gional Council (MARC), the Kansas 
Department of Health and Environ- 
ment, Kansas City local agencies and 
industry representatives. This strategy 
was to be implemented in place of the 
contingency measures presented in the 
1992 Kansas City Ozone Maintenance 
State Implementation Plan. The De- 
partment of Natural Resources pre- 
sented this plan to the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission in April 

1997. The commission asked the De- 
partment of Natural Resources to re- 
move inspection and maintenance 
from this plan and replace it with a 
more expeditious control program. 
After discussions with MARC and 
other community representatives, a 
control strategy including reformu- 
lated gasoline (RFG) was developed. 
The revised maintenance plan called 
for RFG to be sold in the Kansas City 
area starting in 2000. The Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission adopted 
the Maintenance Plan in February 

1998. This plan required the Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources to recom- 
mend that the Governor of Missouri 
ask EPA to include the Kansas City 
area in the federal RFG program by 
April 2000. 

RFG would have replaced low RVP 
gasoline as the fuel control strategy. 
The Department of Natural Resources 
and the Kansas Department of Health 
and Environment hosted a Fuels Sum- 
mit in June 1999. This summit resulted 
in a recommendation to proceed with 
RFG. The governors of Kansas and 
Missouri opted into the RFG program 
at the end of July 1999. However, a 
lawsuit against EPA blocked the use of 
federal RFG in former ozone nonat- 
tainment areas, including Kansas City. 



The petroleum interests offered to sup- 
ply Kansas City with a 7.0 RVP gaso- 
line beginning in 2001. Missouri and 
the state of Kansas implemented 7.0 
RVP gasoline programs on June 1, 
2001. Additionally, Missouri adopted 
new requirements for cold solvent 
cleaning, aerospace coatings, and Stage 
I vapor recovery systems. Cold clean- 
ers are now required to use low vapor 
pressure solvents. A new rule controls 
VOC content of aerospace coatings. 
The Stage I Vapor Recovery program 
was amended to require enhanced re- 
porting and record-keeping, increased 
inspection frequency and installation 
of pressure vacuum relief valves. 

Conformity Analysis/ 
Determination 

In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air 
Act - section 176(c), all transportation 
plans, programs and projects are re- 
quired to conform to air quality plans 
for transportation-related pollutants in 
nonattainment and maintenance 
areas. The air quality conformity 
analysis /determination is the Clean 
Air Act requirement that calls for EPA, 
the United States Department of Trans- 
portation and various Missouri and 
Illinois state, regional and local gov- 
ernment agencies to integrate the air 
quality and transportation planning 
development process. Transportation 
conformity supports the development 
of transportation plans, programs and 
projects that enable areas to meet and 
maintain national air quality standards 
for ozone, particulate matter and car- 
bon monoxide, which impact human 
health and the environment. 

The Mid- America Regional Council 
conducts and coordinates the air qual- 
ity conformity analysis / determination 
for Kansas City in cooperation with the 
United States Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency, the United States Depart- 
ment of Transportation and various 
Missouri and Kansas state, regional 
and local government agencies. Cur- 
rently, the air quality conformity analy- 
sis/determination is performed on an 
annual basis. 



-21- 



■ 



ead In Misso 





Low doses of lead can damage 
the central nervous system of 
infants and children, causing 
seizures, disabilities and behavior 
disorders. In children and adults, 
lead causes fatigue, disturbed sleep 
and decreased fitness. It damages the 
kidneys, liver and blood-forming 
organs. It is suspected of causing 
high blood pressure and heart 
disease. High levels damage the 
nervous system and cause seizures, 
comas and death. The National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards 
(NAAQS) are established EPA and 
limit the amount of certain pollutants 
allowed in outside air. These limits 
are based on what is safe for humans 
to breathe. The NAAQS standard for 
lead is set at 1.5 micrograms per cubic 



Lead Nonattainment Areas 




Nonattainment Area Primary Lead Emitter 

1 City of Herculaneum Doe Run, Herculaneum 

2 Liberty/Arcadia Township Doe Run, Glover 



meter averaged over a calendar 
quarter. The federal Clean Air Act 
Amendments of 1990 require states to 
bring all nonattainment areas into 
compliance with the lead standard. 
Lead emissions are reduced through 
control strategies and clean work 
practices. All methods of reducing 
lead emissions are included into the 
Missouri State Implementation Plan 
(SIP) for lead, making them 
enforceable. 

At the beginning of 2001, there were 
two areas designated as being in 
nonattainment for lead standards, 
Herculaneum and Glover. The Doe 
Run Company operates primary lead 
smelters within these areas. 

Herculaneum Plan Approval 

The Department of Natural 
Resources' Air Pollution Control 
Program revised the control strategy 
for the Herculaneum lead SIP. The 
department's Air Pollution Control 
Program presented this plan for 
public hearing on Oct. 26, 2000. The 
Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission adopted the plan Dec. 7, 
2000. This plan was submitted to 
EPA on Jan. 9, 2001 and EPA 
determined that the plan submittal 
was complete on Jan. 18, 2001. 

The plan involved the development 
of an emission inventory protocol, 
observation of emission testing, 
oversight and review of on-site 
meteorological data, development of 
a comprehensive hour-by-hour 
emission inventory, development and 
considerable refinements of a 
dispersion model, three rounds of 
receptor modeling and model 
reconciliation. The emission control 



-22- 



strategy involves enclosure of the 
main processes at the plant and the 
installation of building ventilation 
systems. The ventilation gases will 
be filtered by state-of-the-art, high- 
efficiency filtration systems. Capital 
costs are expected to be about $12 
million. Doe Run is required to 
install all of the emission controls by 
July 31, 2002. 

Air quality data for the area shows 
continued violations of the lead 
NAAQS, most notably at the Broad 
Street monitor. This monitor is 
located within a few hundred yards 
of the facility. Review of the 
monitoring shows that this monitor 
gives very high readings on days 
when the prevailing winds blow 
directly from the plant to the monitor. 



In late August 2001, lead-bearing 
materials were discovered on the city 
streets of Herculaneum, along the 
route that Doe Run uses to haul 
concentrated ores into the plant. The 
contamination decreased with 
distance from the plant. This 
material likely fell off of the tires and 
tailgates of trucks as they left the 
plant. These ores may have become 
airborne as vehicles drove over it. 
The Department of Natural Resources 
ordered Doe Run to clean up the 
streets, and much of that work has 
been completed. The order also 
required Doe Run to inspect and 
clean the concentrate trucks before 
they left the plant. Additional air 
monitors were installed to measure 
any potential impact that the street 
dust might be having on residents. 



The Department has kept the 
residents of Herculaneum informed 
through the use of direct mailings 
and Web site (http:Wwww.dnr.stat. 
mo.us/env/herc.htm.) Many 
residents have voiced concerns about 
the truck traffic and concentrate 
hauling practices. The company is 
investigating other options for the 
delivery of concentrate to the facility. 

Glover Plan 

Air monitors near the Doe Run- 
Glover Smelter have not shown a 
violation of the NAAQS since the SIP 
controls were installed on Dec. 31, 
1996. The department held 
preliminary meetings with Glover to 
discuss re-designation of the area to 
attainment. A re-designation request 
for this area will be developed in 2002. 



Doe Run Herculaneum Smelter - #7 Broad Street Site 



15.0 



12.0 



Health Standard = 1.5 ug/m3 



a 



n 



98 



99 



1 1 st Qt □ 2nd Qtr □ 3rd Qtr ■ 4th Qtr 



Average Quarterly Concentrations of 
Lead in Ambient Air Near Lead Smelters 
in Missouri 

Since Missouri is the chief lead-mining district in the nation, 
with several smelters, the department conducts ambient 
monitoring for lead. Developed by EPA, the health standard for 
lead defines the maximum safe level for human exposure to this 
otherwise useful metal. The National Ambient Air Quality 
Standard for lead is 1.5 micrograms per cubic meter, averaged 
from all the monitor filters in one-quarter of the year. Currently, 
the Herculaneum smelter is the only one registering 
exceedances of the airborne lead standard. 



15.0 



0.0 



Doe Run Buick Smelter -#1 Site 




Doe Run Glover Smelter - #5 Big Creek Site 



Health Standard = 1.5 ug/m3 



*-Th. 



98 



99 



00 



1 1 st Qt □ 2nd Qtr □ 3rd Qtr ■ 4th Qtr 



- 23 



Fine Particulate Matter 

PM2.5 is primarily generated from 
combustion sources. It can be 
emitted directly as particulate, or it 
can be formed from gases that are 
emitted, which combine or condense 
in the atmosphere to make particles. 
In addition to the current ambient 
monitoring, the department plans to 
conduct sampling that could be 
analyzed for specific compounds or 
species of compounds. This would 
help determine what types of sources 
are most responsible for PM2.5 levels 
in different parts of the state. 



The time schedule for the PM2.5 
standard to be implemented and 
attained will take several years 
because a new monitoring system for 
this type of pollution must be created. 
Based on EPA guidance, Missouri has 
designed a network of 30 monitors. 
By the end of 1999, 20 monitoring 
sites were in operation. EPA will 
designate the area attainment by 2003 
based on three years of data gathered 
since 1999. 



1999 - 2001 PM2.5 Data Summary 



24-hr Std = 65 g/m 3 , 98th percentile Annual Mean Std = 15.0 g/m 







Maximum 






Minimum 






St. Louis 


1999 


2000 


2001 


1999 


2000 


2001 


Mean 


West Alton 


43.7 


35.2 


42.0 


14.4 


14.9 


14.8 


14.7 


Margaretta 


49.4 


41.8 


48.4 


15.3 


15.0 


14.1 


14.8 


Blair Street 


64.5 


45.2 


52.5 


17.3* 


16.4 


15.2 


16.3 


South Broadway 




42.3 


52.5 




15.8* 


14.8 


15.3 


2nd & Mound 


29.0 


43.3 


51.3 


15.8* 


16.0 


15.4 


15.7 


Florissant Valley 


46.9 


37.7 


36.1 


14.6 


14.3 


13.4 


14.1 


Clayton 


46.7 


51.0 


36.0 


15.2 


14.8 


13.8 


14.6 


South Lindberg 






28.1 






12.1* 


12.1 


Arnold 


46.5 


34.8 


36.8 


15.2 


14.7 


14.5 


14.8 



Kansas City 



Liberty 


28.9 


32.8 


32.1 


11.2 


11.1 


12.2 


11.5 


North Kansas City 


37.3 


39.5 


43.5 


12.2 


13.1 


13.0 


12.8 


Sugar Creek 


36.2 


37.3 


39.4 


11.8 


12.6 


12.6 


12.3 


Locust 


34.9 


41.9 


37.2 


14.0 


13.4 


14.2 


13.9 


Plaza 




40.4 


35.8 




11.3* 


13.0 


12.2 


Richards-Gebaur 


30.1 






11.6 








Belton 




40.9 


34.5 




10.9 


11.4 


11.3 



Outstate 

Eldorado Springs 31 .2 

Mark Twain 38.9 

Ste. Genevieve 42.1 

SMSU 35.0 

St. Joseph 30.8 

Carthage Stone 37.7 

Mountain View 50.2 
Belle 



37.3 


26.5 


11.3 


34.5 


33.7 


11.1 


37.0 


34.5 


13.8 


42.7 


31.2 


12.2 


31.9 


35.4 


12.5 


31.3 


34.1 


13.1 


37.2 




13.1 




96.0 





11.5 


11.6 


11.5 


11.0 


11.2 


11.1 


15.2 


13.7 


14.2 


12.3 


12.2 


12.2 


11.8 


12.9 


12.4 


13.2 


14.4 


13.6 


13.5 




13.3 




21.8* 


21.8 



* = less than one full year of data 



-24- 



ncentrated Animal Feeding Operations 



Many resi- 
dents who 
live near 
concentrated animal 
feeding operations 
(CAFOs) know first 
hand that odor can be 
a problem. In order to 
combat these odors, 
in March 1999, the 
Missouri Air Conser- 
vation Commission 
adopted an amend- 
ment to the odor rules 
due to the large num- 
ber of complaints cre- 
ated by the odors. 
This amendment re- 
quires for the Depart- 
ment of Natural Re- 
sources' Air Pollution Control 
Program to regulate the odor emis- 
sions from the very largest CAFOs. 

As of July 30, 1999, Class IA CAFOs 
were required to submit an odor con- 
trol plan to the Air Pollution Control 
Program. In this plan, the facility 
must describe the measures it would 
use to control odors. Each CAFO was 
required to submit its plan by July 1, 
2000, and have implemented the 
strategies by Jan. 1, 2002. At the end 
of 2001, the department had ap- 
proved an odor plan for one facility 
and was working with the other facil- 
ities to resolve their issues. After Jan. 
1, 2002, the Air Pollution Control Pro- 
gram is to enforce the odor standard 
stated in the amended rule. 

At the Dec. 6, 2001, Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission meeting 
concerns were presented regarding 
the enforcement of the olfactometry 
standard of the odor rules and its sen- 
sitivity to background odors. In light 




of these concerns, the commission ad- 
vised the Air Pollution Control Pro- 
gram not to issue violations using 
this standard of the rules until the 
program could look into ways to re- 
vise the standard to make it reason- 
able and enforceable. The program 
expects the revised rules to be effec- 
tive early 2003. 

The department is also continuously 
monitoring ambient air near large 
CAFOs. Hydrogen sulfide and am- 
monia concentrations are being moni- 
tored near CAFOs in Mercer and Sul- 
livan counties. The Mercer County 
site began monitoring in 1999, and 
the Sullivan County site began moni- 
toring in summer 2001. 

As a result of the data collected from 
the Mercer County monitoring site, 
Premium Standard Farms and Conti- 
nental Grain are installing permeable 
covers on many of their lagoons. 
High levels of hydrogen sulfide and 
ammonia have been recorded at this 
site over the past two years. These 



covers will reduce the hydrogen sul- 
fide values. 

In addition to the two monitoring 
sites, the Air Pollution Control Pro- 
gram is collecting and analyzing air 
samples to further understand how to 
implement an olfactometry standard 
for CAFOs. This data should help the 
department amend the odor rules to 
make it enforceable and effective. 

In November 2001, EPA finalized a 
consent agreement with Premium 
Standard Farms to reduce odors at its 
Missouri CAFOs. The consent agree- 
ment requires the reduction of hydro- 
gen sulfide and ammonia emissions 
from wastewater treatment systems 
and land application. It also requires 
monitoring of the various com- 
pounds emitted from each facility. 
The company must also investigate 
ways to reduce air emissions from the 
barns. 



- 25 - 



Air Pollution Information 
on the Internet 

There is a wealth of information about air quality issues on the Inter- 
net. You may find some of the following World Wide Web addresses 
helpful (addresses were correct at the date of this publication): 

MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

Air Pollution Control Program (www.dnr.state.mo.us/alpd/apcp) 

Outreach and Assistance Center (www.dnr.state.mo.us/oac) 

General Department Information (www.dnr.state.mo.us) 

The complete Missouri Air Law 
(www.moga.state.mo.us / statutes / c643.htm) 

Department of Natural Resources - Air Quality 
Monitoring(www.dnr.state.mo.us/ alpd /esp/esp_aqm.htm) 

Code of State Regulations (mosl.sos. state. mo.us/csr/csr.htm) 



U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 

EPA Region VII (Kansas City) (www.epa.gov/region07/) 
Office of Air and Radiation (www.epa.gov/oar/) 
Air Links - EPA Air Quality Publications (www.epa.gov/airlinks/) 

OTHER AIR QUALITY ORGANIZATIONS: 

St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership (www.cleanair-stlouis.com/) 

Heartland Sky (Kansas City) 
(www.marc .org / environment /hearts ky.htm) 

American Lung Association (www.lungusa.org/) 

Air and Waste Management Association (www.awma.org/) 

Missouri Department of Health (www.health.state.mo.us/) 

DAILY AIR QUALITY FORECASTS: 

Kansas City (www.marc. org/airquality/airqual.htm#skycast) 
St. Louis (http://www.cleanair-stlouis.com/index.html) 



-26- 



out The Air Pollution Control Progra 




The mission of the Department of 
Natural Resources' Air Pollution 
Control Program is "to maintain 
purity of the air resources of the state 
to protect the health, general welfare 
and physical property of the people, 
maximum employment and the full 
industrial development of the state." 
The program serves the public with 
technology, planning, enforcement, 
permitting, financial and information 
services to achieve this mission. 

Technical Support 

The program's staff analyzes the 
quality of the air in Missouri using 
chemistry, meteorology, mathematics 
and computer modeling. Staff 
members research the sources and 
effects of air pollution, collecting and 
maintaining an annual inventory of 
sources that emit air pollution. In 
conjunction with the Department of 
Natural Resources' Environmental 
Services Program and four local 
agencies, the department's Air 
Pollution Control Program staff 
designs and coordinates an air- 
monitoring network and analyzes 
monitoring data. The network 
provides air quality data from more 
than 40 locations around the state. 
Using the monitoring data and other 
data on source emissions and the 
weather, the staff runs computer 
models of the atmosphere to predict 
air quality. 

Planning 

The program's staff develops rules 
and plans designed to protect and 
improve Missouri's air quality. 
Public participation is a vital part of 
the cooperative process of developing 



guidelines and regulations. The staff 
works with businesses, federal, state 
and local government agencies, 
environmental groups and the public 
to exchange ideas and information on 
clean air issues with advisory groups, 
workgroups and workshops. 

The program's staff works closely 
with EPA as part of the national effort 
to improve air quality through the 
Clean Air Act. The staff research and 
analyze complex environmental 
issues to develop air pollution control 
strategies that will ensure Missouri's 
progress toward achieving and 
maintaining healthy air quality 
improvements. These air pollution 
control strategies are included in the 
state implementation plan (SIP) to 
control specific pollutants. The 
Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission (see p. xx) approves the 
state implementation plan and rule 
actions after they have gone through 
a public hearing process. Once rules 
are adopted by the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission, they 
become effective through publication 
in the Missouri State Code of 
Regulations. The state 
implementation plan and associated 
rules adopted by the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission are 
submitted to EPA for inclusion in the 
federally approved state plan. 

Permits 

The program's staff reviews 
construction permit applications of 
new or modified emission sources to 
ensure that facilities minimize the 
release of air contaminants and will 
meet the requirements of the state 



and federal law and regulations. 
Operating permit applications, 
similar to business licenses, are also 
received and issued. Operating 
permits staff identifies all the air 
pollution control requirements of a 
source of air pollution. 

Enforcement 

The program, through the 
department's regional offices, 
responds to complaints about air 
quality and help businesses comply 
with various federal, state and local 
rules. Staff conduct routine site 
inspections and oversees the testing 
of smokestacks, asbestos removal, 
gasoline vapor recovery equipment 
and other sources of air pollution. 
When a source violates an air quality 
requirement, the staff works with the 
facility to correct the problem and 
may take additional action, including 
the assessment of penalties necessary 
to obtain compliance with the 
requirement. Cases that cannot be 
resolved are referred to the Missouri 
Attorney General's office through the 
Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission. 

Administration 

The program's staff provides 
budgeting, procurement, public 
information and personnel services. 
The staff also provides liaisons for the 
Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission, EPA, the Missouri 
Department of Health, local air 
agencies in Kansas City, St. Louis, St. 
Louis County and Springfield, the 
American Lung Association and the 
news media. 



-27- 



2001 Revenue by Source 




Total: $12,938,000 



2001 Revenue by Source 

The department's Air Pollution 
Control Program receives funds from 
three sources: general tax revenue 
approved by the Missouri General 
Assembly, federal funds from EPA 
and four types of fees collected by the 
program. Since 1972, the program has 
collected fees from businesses 
seeking permits to build new or 
modify existing emission sources. 
Since 1984, the state has collected a 
fee to test the emissions of 1.2 million 
motor vehicles in the city of St. Louis 
and in Franklin, Jefferson, St. Charles 
and St. Louis counties. In 2000, an 
enhanced inspection program was 
initiated in all of these counties 
except Franklin, which still uses the 
basic test. Since 1993, the program 
has collected an emission fee from air 
pollution sources under the Missouri 
Air Conservation Law. Since 1989, the 



program has collected fees to ensure 
the safe removal of asbestos, a cancer- 
causing substance of combined 
materials once used to insulate 
buildings. Funds received by the 
program are shown in the table 
above. 

Local Agencies 

A city or county may have its own air 
agency under two conditions: the city 
must be able to enforce its rules and 
its rules must be as strict as the 
state's. Local agencies issue permits, 
maintain their own monitoring 
networks and may enforce asbestos- 
removal laws. The local agencies are 
partially funded by EPA through the 
Department of Natural Resources. 
Four local governments in Missouri 
practice regional control over air 
pollution: Kansas City, St. Louis, St. 
Louis County and Springfield. 



-28- 



Missouri Air Conservation Commission 



Created by the Missouri General Assembly in 1965, the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission has seven members appointed by the 
governor. The commission's responsibility is to carry out the 
requirements of the Missouri Air Conservation Law, Chapter 643, Revised 
Statutes of Missouri. The primary duty of the commission is to achieve and 
maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards established by EPA. 
When the quality of the air meets these standards, an area is said to be in 
attainment. If an area does not meet the standards for a pollutant, however, the 
area is a nonattainment area for that pollutant. 

Members serve four-year terms and the commission meets at least nine times 
per year. All meetings are open to the public and comments are welcome. Most 
meetings include public hearings where rule actions, state implementation 
plans and other matters are heard. 

At meetings, the commission adopts, amends and rescinds rules. They hear 
appeals of enforcement orders and permit conditions and initiate legal action to 
enforce the rules. The commission assigns duties to local air pollution control 
agencies. They classify Missouri regions as attainment or nonattainment areas 
and approve plans to meet national standards in nonattainment areas. 
Notices of public hearings are published in the public-notice sections of these 
newspapers: Columbia Daily Tribune, Kansas City Star, Kirksville Daily Express, 
Poplar Bluff Daily American Republic, Springfield Neivs Leader, St. Joseph News Press 
and St. Louis Post-Dispatch. They are also published in the Missouri Register. To 
be placed on a mailing list to receive notice of public hearings and meetings, 
you may contact the Department of Natural Resources' Air Pollution Control 
Program at (573) 751-4817. 

Information on public hearings and Missouri Air Conservation Commission 

meetings is also available on our home page at www.dnr.state.mo.us/alpd/apcp. 




-29- 



Bob Holden 

Governor 
State of Missouri 



2001 Missouri 
Air Conservation 
Commission 

Michael Foresman 

Chair 



Harriet Beard 

Vice-chair 



Frank Beller 
Ernie Brown 
Joanne Collins 
Andy Farmer 
Barry Kayes 



Steve Mahfood 

Director 

Department of Natural Resources 



John Young 

Director 

Department of Natural Resources' 
Air and Land Protection Division 



Roger D. Randolph 

Director 

Department of Natural Resources' 
Air Pollution Control Program 



Left to Right: Andy Farmer, Joanne 
Collins, Ernie Brown, Harriet Beard, 
Frank Beller and Barry Kayes (Not 
Pictured: Michael Foresman) 



Down the Road 



Regional Haze: EPA recently final- 
ized a rule to improve visibility in 
the Class I Wilderness Areas of 
the United States. There are two 
Class I areas in Missouri: Hercules 
Glade Wilderness Area in Taney 
County and Mingo Wilderness 
Area in Stoddard and Wayne 
counties. 

The pollutants that obscure visi- 
bility are called "haze." Some 
pollutants that contribute to haze, 
mostly fine particles, are directly 
emitted to the atmosphere by a va- 
riety of sources including electric 
power generation, industry, mo- 
bile sources, agricultural burning 
and forestry burning. In Mis- 
souri, sulfate, a byproduct of fos- 
sil fuel combustion, is likely to be 
a dominant source of visibility 
impairment. 

Improvements in visibility are ex- 
pected to occur with the goal of re- 
ducing haze in the Class I areas to 
natural background conditions in 
60 years. The photograph on this 
page reflects the air quality differ- 
ences at Hercules Glade on good 
and poor air quality days. 

Developing a plan to identify and 
control sources that contribute to 
regional haze will be one of the 
major activities of the Air Pro- 
gram over the next few years. 
Since these pollutants can be 
transported great distances by the 
atmosphere, Missouri has joined 

Central States Regional Air 
Planning Association (CENRAP). 
CENRAP is an organization of 
states, tribes, federal agencies and 
ler interested parties that is 
dying haze and visibility is- 
;s and working together to de- 
velop strategies to address them. 
The organization includes the 
states and tribal areas of Ne- 
braska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, 
Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, 
Arkansas and Louisiana. 




MB 9m I 




Hercules Glade Wilderness Area 
Photographs provided by David A. Castillon, Ph.D., Geomorphologist. 



01 Rules Update 




I 



n 2001, the Missouri Air Conservation Commission adopted 10 rule actions. A complete list of rules is available at 
mosl.sos. state. mo. us/csr/ csr.htm. The following is a list of the rules adopted in 2001: 



10 CSR 10-2.215 Control of Emissions from 
Solvent Cleanup Operations 

This new rule adopted regulatory language to reduce 
solvent emissions from solvent cleaning operations in the 
Kansas City metropolitan area. This rule allows the 
greater Kansas City area to comply with the volatile 
organic compound emission requirements in the State 
Implementation Plan. 

10 CSR 10-2.330 Control of Gasoline 
Reid Vapor Pressure 

This rule amendment incorporated regulatory language to 
further reduce evaporative emissions of volatile organic 
compounds (VOC) from the use of gasoline in the Kansas 
City Ozone maintenance area. This rule amendment 
assists Kansas City in complying with the VOC reduction 
requirements in the State Implementation Plan. 

10 CSR 10-6.040 Reference Methods 

This rule amendment updated test methods used to 
determine concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric 
acid and sulfur. 

10 CSR 10-6.200 Hospital, Medical, 
Infectious Waste Incinerators 

This rule amendment revised definitions of co-fired 
combustor and medical / infectious waste to be consistent 
with federal definitions. 

10 CSR 10-2.260 Control of Petroleum 
Liquid Storage, Loading and Transfer 

This rule amendment requires delivery vessels to meet 
testing requirements using the federal standard specified 
in CFR Part 63.425(e) instead of state-specific testing 
requirements. The federal requirements are very similar to 
the state requirements and do not impose an additional 
regulatory burden on the affected industry. This action 
makes the Kansas City tank truck tightness test 



requirements consistent with those in St. Louis. In 
addition, this rule amendment requires California Air 
Resources Board certified pressure/ vacuum valves to be 
installed on gasoline storage tanks larger than 2,000 
gallons as part of the Kansas City Ozone Maintenance 
Plan. 

10 CSR 10-6.400 Restriction of Emission of 
Particulate Matter from Industrial Processes 

This rule amendment revised regulatory language to 
address comments received when the original four area 
specific rules were rescinded as a result of being 
consolidated into this new rule. 

10 CSR 10-2.210 Control of Emissions from 
Solvent Metal Cleaning 

This rule amendment required specific vapor pressure 
limits on solvents used in cold cleaning operations to 
reduce the rate of evaporation of cold cleaning solvents to 
the atmosphere. This actions is part of the Kansas City 
Ozone Maintenance Plan. 

10 CSR 10-6.110 Submission of Emission Data, 
Emission Fees and Process Information 

This rule amendment established emission and service 
fees for Missouri facilities as required annually by 643.070 
and 643.079, RSMo. 

10 CSR 10-6.050 Start-Up, Shutdown and 
Malfunction Conditions 

This rule amendment adopted regulatory language to 
clarify what constitutes a malfunction, start-up or 
shutdown condition. It also determines the reporting 
requirements for each condition. 

10 CSR 10-6.280 Compliance Monitoring Usage 

This rule amendment corrected the monitoring method 
reference in the rule language. 



- 31 - 



State Implementation Plan/ 
Air Quality Plans 

The department's Air Pollution Control Program submits rules to the 
Missouri Air Conservation Commission and writes the State 
Implementation Plan (SIP) and air quality plans that indicate how 
Missouri will achieve and maintain the federal standards for ozone and other 
pollutants. 

The SIP is the primary method for achieving the National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards for compliance with the Clean Air Act. Distinct air quality 
plans are developed for specific air pollutants. Whenever concentrations of one 
of these pollutants exceed federal standards, a plan is developed to bring the 
area into compliance. Plan development includes a new inventory of emission 
levels, computer modeling of emissions' sources and the effects of emission 
sources, control strategies and regulatory requirements or rules. 

Another type of air quality plan, called a State Implementation Plan, also 
involves an emission inventory, controls and rules, but addresses emission 
source types as well as specific pollutants. 

The Missouri Air Conservation Commission adopted the following three plan 
actions in 2001: 

St. Louis Attainment Demonstration Plan - St. Louis * 

This plan action came as the result of an Aug.30, 2000, U.S. Court of Appeals 
decision extending the compliance date for the Oxides of Nitrogen SIP call from 
2003 to 2004. Because this action could have changed the proposed attainment 
date extension for St. Louis from 2003 to 2004, the department performed an 
analysis at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate 
the potential impact of this action on the Attainment Demonstration. The 
analysis indicated that St. Louis would be able to attain the one-hour ozone 
standard in 2004. The MACC adopted this plan action on Feb. 26, 2001 during a 
special telephone conference meeting. 

St. Joseph Light & Power SO2 Attainment Plan - St. Joseph * 

This plan action established a consent agreement between the St. Joseph Light & 
Power Company and Missouri to avoid a SO2 nonattainment designation. 
MACC adopted the plan on March 29, 2001. All parties to the agreement have 
signed it. 

Springfield City Utilities SO2 Consent Agreement - Springfield * 

This plan action established a SO2 control strategy. All parties have signed the 
control strategy except the U.S. Court of Appeals. MACC adopted the control 
strategy Dec. 6, 2001. The strategy will be presented to the Court for final 
execution. 

*These plans are part of the Missouri State Implementation Plan. 



- 32 - 





1 A 


ir Quality Informati 


on 



MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

Air Pollution Control Program (573) 751-4817 

P.O. Box 176 Jefferson City, MO 65102-0176 

General Department of Natural Resources Information 1-800-361-4827 

Relay Missouri (for use by the hearing impaired) 1-800-735-2966 

Jefferson City Regional Office (573) 751-2729 

Kansas City Regional Office (816) 622-7000 

Northeast Regional Office (Macon) (660) 385-2129 

St. Louis Regional Office (314) 301-7600 

Southeast Regional Office (Poplar Bluff) (573) 840-9750 

Southwest Regional Office (Springfield) (417) 891-4300 

IN CASE OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY: 

Missouri Department of Natural Resources 

Emergencies only 24 hours a day (573) 634-2436 

Emergency Response Office weekdays (573) 526-3315 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Region 7 (913) 551-7020 

National Response Center (A service of the U.S. government for reporting oil and chemical spills) 1-800-424-8802 

CHEMTREC (A service of the chemical industry for reporting chemical spills, leaks and fires) 1-800-424-9300 

OTHER AIR QUALITY ORGANIZATIONS: 

Missouri Department of Health (573) 751-6400 

St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership (314) 645-5505 

Heartland Sky (Kansas City) (816)-474-4240 

American Lung Association of Eastern Missouri (314) 645-5505 

American Lung Association of Western Missouri (816) 842-5242 

Kansas City Health Department (816) 513-6314 

City of St. Louis - Division of Air Pollution Control (314) 613-7300 

St. Louis County - Department of Health (314) 615-8923 

Springfield-Greene County - Air Pollution Control Authority (417) 864-1662 

- 33 - 



Glossary 



Attainment: The designation given to an area that meets all 
National Ambient Air Quality Standards. 

Carbon monoxide (CO): A poisonous gas that is odorless, 
colorless and tasteless. At low levels it causes impaired 
vision and manual dexterity, weakness and mental dullness. 
At high levels it may cause vomiting, fast pulse and 
breathing followed by a slow pulse and breathing, then 
collapse and unconsciousness. 

Exceedance: An exceedance occurs when levels of a certain 
pollutant are higher than those deemed safe by the federal 
government. 

Inhalable particles (PMio and PM2.5): A broad class of 
particles sometimes simply referred to as "soot." One of the 
"criteria pollutants," PM10 particles are 10 microns or 
smaller in diameter. The pollutant increases the likelihood 
of chronic or acute respiratory illness. It also causes 
difficulty in breathing, aggravation of existing respiratory or 
cardiovascular illness and lung damage. In addition it 
causes decreased ability to defend against foreign materials. 
New laws have been passed regulating PM2.5, an even 
smaller and more harmful class of fine particles less than 2.5 
microns in diameter. Missouri is beginning to monitor its 
concentrations. 

Lead (Pb): Airborne lead appears as dust-like particles 
ranging from light gray to black. Low doses may damage 
the central nervous system of fetuses and children, causing 
seizures, mental retardation and behavioral disorders. In 
children and adults, lead causes fatigue, disturbed sleep 
and leads to decreased fitness, and it damages the kidneys, 
liver and blood-forming organs. It is suspected of causing 
high blood pressure and heart disease. High levels damage 
the nervous system and cause seizures, comas and death. 

Missouri Air Conservation Commission: The governor 
appoints this seven-member group. The commission carries 
out the Missouri Air Conservation Law, Chapter 643, 
Revised Statutes of Missouri. The primary duty of the 
commission is to help Missouri achieve the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency. 

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): 

Standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
that limit the amount of six air pollutants allowed in outside 
air. These six are carbon monoxide, inhalable particles, lead, 
nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide. The limits are 
based on what is safe for humans to breathe. 



Nitrogen dioxide (NO2): A poisonous, reddish-brown to 
dark brown gas with an irritating odor. It can cause lung 
inflammation and can lower resistance to infections like 
bronchitis and pneumonia. It is suspected of causing acute 
respiratory disease in children. 

Nonattainment area: A region in which air monitors detect 
more of a pollutant than is allowed by the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency. The U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency may designate a region as a 
"nonattainment area" for that pollutant. 

Ozone (O3): Three atoms of oxygen; a colorless gas with a 
pleasant odor at low concentrations. The layer of ozone in 
the atmosphere protects the earth from the sun's harmful 
rays. Ground-level ozone is a summertime hazard 
produced when hydrocarbons from car exhaust and other 
fumes mix in the presence of sunlight with oxides of 
nitrogen from power plants and other sources. Ozone is 
more easily recognized in smog, a transparent summer haze 
that hangs over urban areas. The result is a gas that 
aggravates respiratory illness, makes breathing difficult and 
damages breathing tissues. Victims include people with 
lung disease, the elderly, children and adults who exercise 
outside. 

Ozone Violation: Four or more exceedances of the federal 
ozone standard occurring in a three-year period at the same 
monitoring site. 

Reformulated Gasoline (RFG): A fuel blend designed to 
reduce air toxins and volatile organic compound (VOC) 
emissions by decreasing the amount of toxic compounds 
such as benzene, lowering the evaporation rate and 
increasing the amount of oxygenate blended with the fuel. 

Smelter: A facility that uses chemical and physical 
processes to turn metallic ores (such as lead sulfide 
concentrates) into sellable pure metal and alloy products. 

State Implementation Plan (SIP): A plan submitted by the 
Missouri Department of Natural Resources to the 
Environmental Protection Agency for complying with 
national air quality standards. Each plan concerns one air 
pollutant for one nonattainment area. 

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): A colorless gas with a strong, 
suffocating odor. Causes irritation of the throat and lungs 
and difficulty in breathing. It also causes aggravation of 
existing respiratory or cardiovascular illness. 



-34-